We are expanding this study to CMC and Manufacturing departments. Please let us know if you would like to participate.
Mark Osborne and John Todd are working on this phase of the LIfe Sciences survey.
FOCUS areas: Drug Development and Biotechnology Companies in the PMI Mass Bay region
Project Management adoption varies by industry in the PMI Mass Bay region. PM20/20 will document these differences as a learning tool for our Project Management community. This report focuses on the Life Sciences industry, particularly Drug and Biotechnology companies
Introduction to PMI Mass Bay and PM20/20
PMI Mass Bay is the local chapter of the Project Management Institute (pmi.org) and has over 3,100 active members as of July 2017. Our membership consists of Project Management and Business Analysis professionals representing companies of all sizes across a diverse group of industries. This report was completed by volunteers from the PMI Mass Bay Chapter.
PM20/20 is a program sponsored by the PMI Mass Bay Professional Development team. It is designed to ensure that our members have the skills and competencies needed to be successful in their careers in the year 2020 and beyond. This program engages our volunteer members to research and document industry trends, PM and BA competency-skill gaps, and best practices. It provides a unique development opportunity for our members to learn about the needs and best practices of other industries. It will provide specific data points for use in our future program planning and serve the needs of our corporate outreach initiatives.
PMI Mass Bay hosts learning and networking events throughout the Mass Bay region. We have an Outreach Group focused on Life Sciences Project Management that meets monthly. Please view our Event Schedule at pmimassbay.org and register for an event near you.
Pilot: Life Sciences
Drug Development and Biotechnology were chosen as the pilot industries within Life Sciences for PM20/20. There is a strong demand for Life Sciences Project Management talent in our region and a keen interest in this field from our membership. This pilot survey included over forty (40) PM leaders at Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology companies in the Greater Boston area.
Survey respondents were selected from companies of all sizes. The following criteria was used to define the size of the company. All companies have locations in the Greater Boston Area.
- Start-up: less than 50 employees and 0-1 products on the market.
- Small: 50 to 499 employees 1+ products on the market.
- Medium: 500-999 -employees or more than 5 products on the market.
- Large: 1000+ employees more or more than 5 products on the market.
We asked the group about their company’s adoption of Project Management practices, standard tools and techniques and industry best practices. We also asked them about their own professional journey into Life Sciences and Project Management.
We thank our participants for volunteering their time and sharing their insights for the PM20/20 program. To ensure confidentiality and candid participation, the names of the participants and their respective companies will remain confidential and results of this survey will be discussed in summary form only.
This is an on-going project and we welcome additional participants from our local Life Sciences companies to participate. To participate, please contact the Vice President of Professional Development at firstname.lastname@example.org. We will update this report periodically.
Topic: Journey into Life Sciences and Project Management
Project Management roles in the Life Sciences industry are on the rise. However, many Project Managers feel as if there is a high barrier to entry, especially if they come from another industry, lack a Life Sciences degree or do not have Life Sciences experience. To validate these assumptions, we asked our participants about how they broke into the industry and how they found their way into a Project Management role.
The story about how they got their first role in a Life Sciences company was clear. Ninety-five (95%) percent earned a degree in a Life Sciences related field, most commonly Biology, Chemistry or Biochemistry. Of this group ninety (90%) percent started their careers as a bench scientist or on the manufacturing floor. Here, they learned the science and built a strong foundation in the industry. They tell a common story of the Accidental Project Manager, volunteering or being asked to manage small initiatives from the bench/floor. These initiatives were small projects. An example for drug development involved leading a small group of scientists to develop an asset (small molecule, etc.) and qualify it for Proof of Concept (POC). From a manufacturing perspective, it involved installing a new piece of equipment on the manufacturing line. Most respondents did not have formal project management training at the time but used their influencing and organization skills to be successful. Many had strong mentors as well. It is at this point that many of our respondents began to think about Project Management as a career choice.
|Ninety-five (95%) percent earned a degree in a Life Sciences related field, most commonly Biology, Chemistry or Biochemistry. Of this group, ninety (90%) percent started their careers as a bench scientist or on the manufacturing floor|
They began networking with Project Managers inside and outside of their departments and companies. Some sought formal education and training (MBA, MS, etc.). When asked why they pursued Project Management and not a more traditional Scientist career path, we often heard a common phrase “I like the science though not enough to pursue a PhD to further my scientific career”. Others talk about the opportunity to broaden their careers, work with cross functional teams and to gain a broader view of the Product Development Life Cycle. This can be a difficult transition for some, as scientists can often be viewed as single players focused on discovery work rather than being business minded and team players.
Some of these people eventually moved into Consultant or Senior Leadership roles. This group talked fondly about the mentors they found throughout their career. This group was more likely to earn an advanced degree (MS/MBA) and gain cross functional experience in many phases of the Product Development Life Cycle. Most of these leaders embrace PMI best practices and continue to understand the growing need for their Project Management teams to speak a similar language and follow a set of repeatable and predictable processes. PMI certifications (PMP most common) carry weight with this group and they encourage their teams to earn and maintain the credential.
When asked about their hiring practices today, ninety-eight (98) percent of respondents stated that they require a degree in a science related field and experience on the bench/floor (SME) as minimum qualifications for Project and Program Management roles. They also added that candidates must have superior communication, organizational and influencing skills. Only 2 of the 40+ respondents said that they are open to hiring people from other industries for these roles - if they show the drive to learn the industry and have superior soft skills.
|Only 2 of the 40+ respondents said that they are open to hiring people from other industries for their Project and Program Management roles.|
It is common for the terms Project, Program and Portfolio Management to vary across industries. For Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology, these definitions can vary widely. While waterfall and stage gate methodologies remain the dominant processes to follow, the way they define the terms also differs by company size and maturity.
Large well-established and medium sized companies understand the need for strong Project Management practices. They tend to have well defined Project Management Offices (PMO) with structured policies and processes, governance and PM Toolkits. Many of the smaller companies and start-ups do not see an immediate need for a formal Project Management structure. In these small companies, the Executive Team operates as the key decision-making team and manages the product development and project management pipeline. The focus of these companies is on Discovery and bringing an asset (Product) through POC into Development and eventually to market. These employees wear multiple hats and usually do not have a Project Manager title. Once one or two products get to market, the complexities of managing the Product pipeline becomes too difficult for the Executive Team. This is when they start to hire Project and Program Managers to manage these efforts.
It is important to note that the Pharmaceutical Product Development Life Cycle can span 13+ years, while many Biotechnology companies can bring a product to market in 3+ years. This difference can have a direct effect on how they define these terms and when they start hiring Project and Program Managers.
Let’s take a closer look at these three terms Project, Program and Portfolio and the roles that correspond to each.
PMI defines a project as a “temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. A project is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal. Project management is the discipline of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints.”
Our respondents describe projects as having a defined beginning and an end. However, when asked about to classify them by duration and budget of the effort their opinions differ. For most, projects have durations of 1 year or less and/or budgets of $1 million or less. Efforts with measures above these thresholds are commonly classified as Programs. They also suggest that Project Managers and their teams are less cross functional in make-up than their Program counterparts. Examples of projects include the installation of computer software or equipment to support the Product Management Lifecycle (PDLC), filing of regulatory paperwork, or one clinical trial, etc.
Project Managers were overwhelmingly perceived as being tactical – only capable of managing one phase of the overall PDLC. In a few companies, Human Resources levelled the company’s roles and started to use the terms Program and Project Manager interchangeably. In some cases, they simply removed the term Project Manager in favor of the term Program Manager. It is important to note that the job duties in most of these cases remained the same, regardless of job title.
PMI defines a Program as “a group of related projects managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside of the scope of discrete projects in the program. Program management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to meet program requirements and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually...”
The majority of large and medium sized pharmaceutical company respondents described Program and Program Management in PMBoK terms. Others simply described Programs as being more strategic in nature than Projects and aligned to the business strategy. All agreed that programs do not need to have an end date, though PMI states otherwise.
In some companies Program Managers are assigned to manage one PDLC phase: Discovery, Development, Commercialization etc., while others assign Program Managers to manage the entire PDLC for the product. One common exception is the commercialization process. In some companies, a Program Managers manage the Program (product) to completion, however they hand off management to a Product Manager during the Commercialization phase. The original Program Manager then assume responsibility again for the Post Development phase. The Commercialization phase requires specific Product Management, Sales and Marketing expertise in order to be effective. Many Program Managers do not have this experience.
PMI defines a portfolio as “projects, programs, sub portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.” Project Portfolio Management — or simply portfolio management — is defined as the “centralized management of one or more portfolios that enable executive management to meet organizational goals and objectives through efficient decision making on portfolios, projects, programs and operations.”
While the more senior respondents had greater sight into the Portfolio Management process, all respondents claimed to have some knowledge of this process. Our discussion focused on the project and product selection and prioritization process – how do new projects get into the pipeline, how are they funded and who approves and ranks their priority within the portfolio.
Most of the large and medium sized Pharmaceuticals have a formal and well-known process that includes annual and quarterly planning sessions. These companies have hierarchies and procedures that require new assets/products to be vetted and presented to a Governance and/or Executive Committee for approval. Smaller companies and those with less than two drugs on the market rely on the Executive Team (sometimes the CEO and CMO) to determine which projects and products are funded and approved. They do not feel the need for a formal portfolio management function. These companies are in research and development mode and will start to formalize the process when one or more products enter the market.
Examples of Portfolio organization varied somewhat, however at its core, a Portfolio is organized around a therapeutic area. Drugs (Products) supporting that therapeutic area are considered Programs. Projects are initiatives that support the Program and Portfolio. In some companies, Programs can fit into one or more Portfolios depending on the therapeutic area(s) the program (drug) is targeting for treatment.
Overall, it appears that smaller companies use the term Program Manager for both Project and Portfolio roles, whereas larger companies delineate between Project, Program and Portfolio. That said, there is a lot of discussion at these companies about the definition of these terms and how they fit into their company culture and overall organization. We noted that many of the larger Pharmaceutical companies regularly examine their organizational structure and make corresponding adjustments to their PMO and team structures.
Aligning the goals and work of the Project Portfolio Management (PPM) team to that of the overall company is crucial for success. We asked our group about how they align the work of the Project, Program and Portfolio Managers to that of their company.
Project Managers at smaller companies, where people generally work closely together and are focused on one or two products completely understand how their efforts support the company’s strategy. They may not have a lot of influence over the strategy, but the Executive Teams are often open and communicative about their alignment throughout the year. Large Pharmaceutical companies have more structured hierarchies that can hinder open communication from Executives, though the majority responded that their teams are informed about strategy and their fit.
|Aligning the goals and work of the PPM team to that of the overall company is crucial for success.|
Applications and Tools are designed to enable Project Managers to manage their projects more effectively. However, not all tools are right for every project or company. Due to the complexities of their infrastructures, size of their portfolios and number of users, large and medium sized companies often need different applications than smaller companies. We asked our group to tell us about the applications and tools they use to support managing their projects. We have listed the applications below by popularity and their related purpose.
It is important to note that the following applications reflect the survey participants usage only. PMI is not endorsing any application as part of this article.
Portfolio, Program and Project Management
It came as no surprise that the Microsoft Suite of Office applications dominates the market. The competition is heating up though and our group noted the use some alternatives that are either easier to use or less complex to administer. Large and medium sized companies skewed toward the use of Enterprise level software while small companies preferred newer and cloud based applications.
MS Project, MS Project Server and Project Online were the most popular applications for Project and Portfolio Management. Most PMs use these applications to track basic timelines, while others use more advanced features to track resources to task and critical path. Most do not track budgets, detailed resource assignments or dependencies within the MS Project applications. A large number of PMs use add-ons applications to MS Project to display project progress and key data points for their stakeholders. This is common where the number of licenses to MS Project is limited, or where stakeholders do not like viewing MS Project details and prefer a more visual solution.
Several apps are listed below.
- MileStone Plus enables visualization of project status and programs for stakeholders.
- Thinkcell can be used to display MS Project data in PowerPoint.
- Prochain Enterprise adds advanced resourcing functionality to Microsoft project and fever charts in effort reporting.
- MS Excel is used to track timelines for small projects and limited portfolios and programs. Many companies use add-ons to Excel to display project progress and key data points.
- Spotfire enables visualization of project status and programs for stakeholders.
- ENRICH is an application that loads project timelines from Excel and then enables assignment of resources for planning.
- Prism – graphics representation of spreadsheets.
- Oracle Primavera is used for large complex projects at several large Pharmaceuticals surveyed.
- Google Sheets is used by smaller companies with limited portfolios and programs. It can be customized for the needs of the company.
- ENLIGHTEN allows team members to provide input to the Program Plan, and update tasks, Purchase Orders, and decision points, and enables live chat and the recording of these chats.
- PlanisWare HELIX is used to manage portfolios and Executive Reporting.
Workbench is used for portfolio tracking (includes project support activities with dependencies), team member tracking, and links to other tools and documents.
- Promodel allows for Portfolio Management. It enables you to build scenarios for the prioritization of portfolio resources – shows value add.
- JIRA is used by one of the Biotechnology companies and is used where PDLC includes an IT development component.
- Other tools mentioned included: Tableau and MS One Note.
Project Presentations and Executive Reporting
Executive stakeholders want project related data displayed and communicated in an easy to read format focused on the data points important to their business needs. The following applications are used to allow PMs to report status in a format meaningful to this group.
- SharePoint dashboards allow for dynamic project and Executive reporting.
SharePoint sites created for each project serve as storage and sharing locations for documents, etc.
- PowerPoint is the most common tool used to present data in meetings.
- These add-ons are also used: Thinkcell, Spotfire and Milestone Plus.
|It came as no surprise that the Microsoft Suite of Office applications was the most commonly used within our group|
Retaining project knowledge and making it accessible to your team and stakeholders is important to your project’s success. SharePoint and One Note are both Microsoft applications used to store data for projects.
There are many types of Risk facing Life Sciences companies and projects. Companies working with sensitive materials may face political risk, while culture and limited resources can challenge a project team to complete work on time. The majority of companies stated that they identify and mitigate risk as part of their projects while about 35% stated that they do not have any formal risk processes.
Large companies tend to have more formal systems in place to plan for and mitigate risk. They may document a RACI chart and have formal risk identification and communication processes. Smaller companies by comparison often use a manual risk register (paper based, Excel or Google SmartSheets) to rank risk into multiple categories and weight them. In companies with a shortage of resources and tight timelines, risk planning can be a challenge. A common explanation for the lack of Risk Planning is lack of time before the next project starts.
|The majority of companies stated that they identify and mitigate risk as part of their projects while about 35% stated that they do not have any formal risk related processes.|
There are a few applications on the market to assist the Project Manager is ranking and qualifying risk. There are also Risk Modeling applications available. Of the companies surveyed, the majority manage Risk manually. Of those who reported testing risk software, they reported that the applications were either too complicated to manage, or that their company culture was not ready for this level of risk management.
Change Management can mean different things to different companies. Some view Change Management as Change Control, while others view it more broadly as an impact to humans that needs to be planned, such as a change to procedure caused by automation. This is not surprising as formal Change Management is commonly the responsibility of the Program and Portfolio Management teams.
Most of our companies did not view Change Management as a function of the project team. Of those that did, change efforts were tracked manually using spreadsheets. Several of the large pharmaceutical companies take change management very seriously and have a dedicated Change Management department, separate from the project teams.
|Most companies did not view Change Management as a function of the project team.|
Maintaining good communication with your team is essential to keeping your team informed and working to the same goals. This can be difficult when managing project teams that are dispersed across multiple locations or internationally. There are many applications available to assist in managing communications.
Office 365 is the most popular application suite for managing communications with our group.
The Microsoft applications most mentioned were Word, Excel, PowerPoint, One Note, SharePoint, Project, Instant Message, Zoom, Outlook, Link, and Skype for Business.
Email is most commonly used for interoffice and vendor communications.
Webex, e-rooms, and Intralinks are popular to facilitate team collaboration, conduct group calls and share presentations.
Other applications included Slack, Yammer: blogging style application, Box for collaboration and TrackWise for bug control. These are newer applications and most commonly seen in smaller, younger companies. Only two companies reported using these applications.
Content editing and proof reading
Companies that outsource document creation, like regulatory filings need applications that allow them to share and review these documents with their vendors securely online.
Several companies use Please Review to share and edit documents securely.
Budgeting can be complex if tracking external (vendor) and internal (company) costs. Not all companies have the ability to track budgets proactively. When in start-up mode, respondents noted that their company had the ability to raise cash quickly and did not see the need for detailed expense tracking at the project level. It is common in smaller companies to align project budgets with department operating budgets.
Most Project Managers in our survey did not have budget authority. Budgets were held by the Division Management Team or overall Program Manager. In a few cases, Project Managers were able to make recommendations to the management about their project budgets.
Finance is usually the system of record for budget data. Common tools used by Finance include SAP, Oracle and other ERP applications. Program Managers who manage budget may use applications like Horizon or Excel. Horizon is used to track budgets, including internal/external spend, FTE budgeting and standard resource rates.
|Most Project Managers in our survey did not have budget authority.|
Drug Development is held to strict Quality Standards by regulatory agencies. It was outside the scope of this pilot survey to discuss Quality Management.
Templates and Toolkits
PMI offers many PM templates and toolkits for members via projectmanagement.com. PMI recommends that Project Managers select the right tools and templates that fit their project needs and company culture, understanding that there is no “one size fits all” approach. We asked our respondent group which tools and templates they found most useful when managing their projects. As with our other questions, their responses varied by company size and industry. Large companies often develop their own templates and offer them as a PM Toolkit for Project Managers to use.
Small companies were split on the use of Charters, while larger more structured companies included a Charter in their PM Toolkit. Some companies create a Product Development Document (more data points than a charter) that includes the business case, scope (in and out), purpose of the project, estimated timeline and budget, resources, etc.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Work Breakdown Structure exercises were used at several smaller companies as a way for Project Managers to educate their team on the project deliverables and to ensure team buy-in for the plan and deadlines. Of all respondents, only one large company reported to using WBS exercises regularly.
Timelines, also called Project Schedules are used by all respondents however they vary on the amount of detail they track to the timeline. Depending on the size and complexity of the project, some companies track detailed tasks and milestones, while others only track project milestones. Most companies admit to only using 10% of the functionality available in MS Project or their timeline management tool of choice. Many use MS Excel to display schedules to the team and for the management of small projects.
|Most companies admit to only using 10% of the functionality available in MS Project or their timeline management tool of choice.|
Human Resource Management
Project Managers are rarely provided the luxury of selecting their own team members. In most cases, respondents stated that the department manager assigned resources to the team based on their own criteria - in many cases, the next available person. Only one respondent reported that he was able to strike a deal with the department manager. If the team member lacked the skills required, the department would either sponsor learning and development for the team member or replace him/her with a more qualified person.
Team member assignments are commonly managed by the Project Manager, however functional management usually is the responsibility of the department. Project Managers must use their influencing skills to manage a team for which he/she has no functionality authority.
Capturing Lessons Learned from your projects can be extremely valuable to the company and future project teams. Lessons Learned enable future teams to avoid making the same mistakes and to plan for common risks. Capturing this data and making it easily accessible can be a challenge for all companies and Life Sciences is no exception.
Most companies that are tracking lessons learned use SharePoint as the application of choice. Others store the data in MS Word documents and file on their company servers.
Challenges to capturing Lessons Learned include company culture and the lack of available time. Companies that are driven by and rewarded by project success may have built a culture where teams are afraid to be open about their failures. Companies that embrace failure as a learning tool, fare much better at data collection. For many Project Managers, time is a limiting factor. The teams are disbanded when the project ends and the members are immediately reassigned to their next project.
One participant utilized a unique technique to work around the culture obstacle. He set up a conference room with manila folders taped to the walls organized and labeled by project phase. The team was invited into the room with food on the table and encouraged to write their lessons learned on slips of paper and drop them into the appropriately labeled envelope. This allowed for a sense of anonymity and increased the quality and quantity of the data collected. The data was summarized, distributed to the team with appropriate follow-up actions and posted online for future team review. This is a clever way to put the team at ease and allow for open communication without fear of rebuttal or conflict.
Others add lessons learned as an agenda item in their regular company meetings and quarterly project planning meetings. Management and employees are free to offer discuss the project lessons and make suggestions for future improvements
In all cases, respondents clearly understand the need for Lessons Learned. There is an opportunity for innovation in this space.
Agile development has made great strides in accelerating the Product Development Life Cycle in the software industry. It has recently started to spread into Life Sciences projects as well. Most commonly in Medical Device where there is a software component to the product. We asked our group if they have noticed any agile initiatives at their companies and if so, what is the impact to your projects. We also asked if they have any lean initiatives in their portfolios.
The majority of respondents have not noticed any agile influences in their portfolio or projects. One respondent from one of the small pharmaceutical companies mentioned that they are starting to borrow some agile concepts in their projects. Project Managers close to software development (have a combination product that includes a software component) note seeing agile in those projects, but not in research phase.
Lean initiatives are most commonly reported on the manufacturing side of the house and focused on eliminating waste in processes or speeding project delivery. PMs from large pharmaceutical companies reported that there were active Lean initiatives in process.
Advice for Project Managers
We are frequently asked by our members at PMI Mass Bay for advice about getting into Life Sciences Project Management. Who better to provide this advice than our group?
We asked our respondents what advice they would give aspiring Project Managers - now that they have perspective. A summary of the responses is listed below in no particular order.
- Be open to new possibilities – try something new and outside your job.
- Communication and Soft Skills are key and will help drive your and your project’s success.
- Share information to avoid risks.
- Senior Management needs to get updates from you on a regular basis – even if uncomfortable news.
- People Dynamics: gain trust – be transparent.
- Think about the company as a whole and not just as one department. Communicate and share best practices across your organization.
- If you leave a meeting and most of the actions are yours, you have issues – you are not managing the team properly – you are doing too much on project.
- Get your foot in the door, you never know where it will lead you once inside company.
- Read and understand the basics of the drug product development life cycle.
- You can start your career at a Clinical Research Organization (CRO) and learn all they will let you, volunteer for extra assignments.
- If your company outsources, learn about CROs and CMOs (Contract Manufacturing Organization): documenting requirements for the SOW so what you are asking them to do is feasible.
- Demonstrate ways to set yourself up for success in the role - through education, joining organizations, etc.
- You do not need the formal title of project manager, you could be a leader in the lab.
- It is good to be nervous when presenting - stick to the points and deliver a clear message.
- Take on challenging roles and lead a team. Put together the project plan, even if you’re a scientist.
- Find mentors in your company and beyond who are willing to help.
- Build and maintain your professional network – PMI Mass Bay etc.
- Join professional associations and learn as much as possible.
- Take a moment to reflect and learn from past successes and failures. Your own projects and company/industry projects.
- Think holistically and slow down – integrate better.
- Concentrate on long term (10 years+) and short-term career planning (1-3 years) – many just focused on short term planning.
- Most project managers find it easy to build relationships with their core team but need to make an effort to build relationships with team leads of cross-functional departments and executives.
- Try different roles at your company: scientists should try leading projects to see if aptitude for it. You never know where it will take you.
- Always use out of the box thinking for creative solutions.
- Make your projects faster, less expensive and innovative.
- Find ways to keep work moving, work tasks in smaller chunks so that people are not waiting for one task to start another.
- PM in Pharma is not rote (routine)PM position: you can use some PMI templates and processes, but be flexible and think broader and bigger. These projects are very large, can span 12-15 years duration, and PMs can transition on and off them.
- Use PMI as a foundation.
- People come from diverse backgrounds in Project Management, making it interesting and fun, learn from each other.
- Do what you like to do, if you like high level go to Program Management, if you like details go into Project Management.
This was a pilot project for our PM20/20 Program. This program is rolling out in mid-late 2017 and is sponsored by PMI Mass Bay Professional Services team. Additional industries and topics will be researched as part of this program. Our Roundtable group will be leading the research initiatives. To learn more about PM20/20, , you can read more about it at pmimassbay.org.
Special thanks to our survey participants for their continued support of PMI and the project management profession. For more information about PMI Mass Bay, please visit pmi.org and pmimassbay.org. Join us for one of our monthly Roundtable or Outreach Group meetings soon.
If you would like to volunteer in this program, please contact email@example.com. For more information about this survey or to participate in a future survey, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Survey participants were selected from companies of all sizes. The following data was used to define the size of the company. All companies have locations in the Greater Boston Area.
- Start-up: less than 50 employees and less than 1 product on the market.
- Small: 50 to 499 employees 1+ products on the market.
- Medium: 500-999 -employees more than 5 products on the market.
- Large: 1000+ employees more than 5 products on the market.
Respondent Selection Criteria
All participants were in a Project Management related role in a Life Sciences company at time of the survey. Participants roles ranged from Project Manager to Vice President. Years of experience in a Project Management role varied among participants. PMI membership was not a criteria for participation.
For more information about PMI MassBay programs and events, go to pmimassbay.org.
Article researched and written by John Todd PMP 2017.